Strangely Consistent

Musings about programming, Perl 6, and programming Perl 6

June 27 2011: Classes

I thought I'd get philosophical as we get further into this post, but first let's jump right into an example:

my Bool $collected = False;

sub dispense_ticket {
    return "Sorry, you already got a ticket."
        if $collected;

    $collected = True;
    return "Here's your free ticket. Lunch is on us today. Enjoy!";

say dispense_ticket;    # "Here's your free ticket..."
say dispense_ticket;    # "Sorry, you already got a ticket."
say dispense_ticket;    # "Sorry, you already got a ticket."

So. It's a function that only "works once". With the $collected variable, we can keep track of whether the dispense_ticket subroutine has been called before. The variable contains a little bit of state that helps the subroutine remember what's happened before.

But — as usual — there's a problem. Some greedy people figure out that they can just do $collected = False in the code before calling dispense_ticket, and with that neat little trick they can have unlimited lunches for themselves and their pet lizards. The system is too open; something needs to be done.

First, let's discuss a solution that would not work: putting the data inside an array or a hash. That kind of "hiding" makes the information slightly more cumbersome to access, but someone who really wanted to change the value would essentially be as able to as before. Arrays and hashes are "transparent" in the sense that anyone who can see them, can also see inside them.

The real solution involves a new type of data structure besides arrays and hashes. Let me introduce the class:

class Dispenser {
    has Bool $!collected;

    method dispense_ticket {
        return "Sorry, you already got a ticket."
            if $!collected;

        $!collected = True;
        return "Here's your free ticket. Lunch is on us today. Enjoy!";

my $d =;
say $d.dispense_ticket;    # "Here's your free ticket..."
say $d.dispense_ticket;    # "Sorry, you already got a ticket."
say $d.dispense_ticket;    # "Sorry, you already got a ticket."

Whoa, whoa! Ok, the program sort of looks like it did before, but there's a bunch of new stuff there as well. Let's go through them one by one.

The goal we wished for — that of encapsulating the state within a barrier — has now been reached. There's no honest way someone can reach the $!collected attribute inside the $d object and flip its bit. The state is protected from the outside world, and the Dispenser class has full control over it.

Now let's review what new concepts fell out of this little exercise.

A class is something like a blueprint of a group of similar things. We call these things objects. In the example above, Dispenser is a class and $d contains an object of that class. (Objects are always objects of some class or other. Often we hear the term "instance of a class", as well. Same thing.)

An object generally contains state (attributes) as well as behavior (methods). We recognize the attributes as regular variables, but what's different this time around is that they belong to an object, and they're hidden inside that object. We call this encapsulation. (Literally, "forming a shell around".) The methods of a class have access to an object's attributes — like dispense_ticket has to $!collected above — but things outside of the class don't have access to attributes.

This is where I wax a bit philosophical. The thought of classes and objects is very ingrained in our collective unconscious, because they've been a part of philosophical thinking for two millennia and a half: Plato spoke about forms or ideas, these are the unchanging abstract entities on which real-world objects supposedly are based.

So every mug you've seen in your life would, according to Plato, belong to this ideal Mug form; would, let's say, be an instance of that form. Every dog would be an instance of Dog; every box would be an instance of Box... all physical things in the world would just be imperfect realizations of their corresponding perfect ideals. According to Plato.

It's because of this ancient subdivision that we tend to have both classes and objects when programming. The class takes care of the collective concerns, like the declaration of attributes and methods, whereas the objects take care of the nitty-gritty stuff, such as actually interacting with the program.

The line is (intentionally) blurry sometimes. The class Dispenser behaves very much like an object when we call .new on it, for example. That's good, because we need to call .new on something.

Speaking of which...

my $d1 =;
say $d1.dispense_ticket;    # "Here's your free ticket..."
say $d1.dispense_ticket;    # "Sorry, you already got a ticket."

my $d2 =;
say $d2.dispense_ticket;    # "Here's your free ticket..."

Oops. :-)

Well, we could have predicted this would happen. (Both from a that's-how-attributes-work standpoint, and from a people-will-do-anything-for-free-lunch standpoint.) We have not eliminated the problem of people getting multiple free lunches, but we have contained the problem, and now we only have to solve the — hopefully simpler — issue of preventing Dispenser propagation. (Hm... a singleton? Or some kind of authentication mechanism?)

It turns out that as your programs grow bigger and bigger, they also grow more complex and difficult to maintain. Subroutines were introduced as a way to keep the complexity in check, and divide up the program in smaller part. Classes are the same kind of medicine, but they go one step further by actually encouraging encapsulation of state within objects.

Objects: they encapsulate state, and regulate the ways you can modify that state. They're little worlds in themselves, worlds where you, the author, make the rules.

Now if you'll excuse me, I have to go refill the dispenser. People are grabbing tickets like crazy...